This is an ideal attribution because it includes the following:
Copyright is a bunch of rights in specific creative material such as text, artistic works, music, computer programs, sound recordings and films. The copyright owner has the right to control how their material is used. Copyright owners can prevent others from copying or communicating their material without their permission. For further details, see: About Copyright.
Creative Commons is a licence that is applied to a work protected by Copyright. It's a way of easily sharing copyrighted work without giving up total control or spending countless hours granting permissions.
Copyright matters, because as instructors we often use content created by others, and create content for others to use.
Copyright is a form of legal protection that affords the copyright owner the exclusive rights to, among other things:
Without permission from the copyright owner, or an applicable exception such as fair dealing under the Copyright Act, it is a violation of copyright law to exercise any of the copyright owner's exclusive rights.
For additional information on copyright, contact the University Copyright Officer.
A copyright licence is a grant of permission to use certain copyright rights. Copyright licences often have specific limitations that are outlined. For example, they may:
When evaluating the permitted scope of uses, read all copyright language closely. Using a work in a manner that exceeds the scope of permissions granted in a licence is copyright infringement.
Under Section 35 of the Copyright Act 1968, the author of the work is generally the owner of the copyright. However, if a work is created within the scope of the author’s employment, the employer holds the copyright unless there is an agreement to the contrary.
Check the University's Copyright Policy and Intellectual Property Policy. Collective agreements or employment contracts can also affect copyright ownership. Contact your Institution's library if you need more information, since they may be able to direct you to relevant policies and contacts.
Works in the Public Domain are released from copyright protection, due to expiration of their copyright or by designation by the copyright holder. This content may be used in any way by anyone. In Australia, with some exceptions, copyright expires 70 years after the death of the creator.
Section 40 of the The Copyright Act 1968 addresses education use: fair dealing for the purpose of research or study.
It is not a violation of copyright to link to copyrighted material, nor is it necessary to obtain permission from the copyright holder to, for example, link to a YouTube video in a presentation.
Follow this simplified checklist to determine the user permissions of the resources that you find online:
Use the guidelines below to identify whether you need to seek permission from the copyright holder when repurposing existing materials as OER. You may also contact your institutional Library for help on determining whether your intended use falls within a copyright exception or licence or whether permission is required.
Before you start, you should ask yourself these questions (Word download):
Download this free Record of Permissions form (Excel download) to help you keep track of third party licensing permissions.
|1||reuse content in its unaltered/verbatim original format|
|2||retain copies of content for personal archives or reference|
|3||revise content to suit specific needs|
|4||remix content with other similar content to create something new|
|5||redistribute or share content with anyone else in its original or altered format|
These five rights, or permissions, of using OER are made possible through open licensing.
For example, a Creative Commons open licence helps you retain copyright while allowing others to reproduce, distribute, and make some use of your work.
Open licences support creators that want to share their works freely, and allow other users more flexibility to reuse and share the creators’ works. Specific benefits include:
Open Textbooks are typically licensed under an open licensing system, with the most popular being the Creative Commons (CC) licensing system.
Creative Commons licences allow you to retain certain rights while waiving some rights. There are six types of Creative Commons licence. All require attribution to the original creator(s). You can add on other restrictions such as non-commercial uses only and no derivative works. The six licences include:
Watch the video or read the Creative Commons Kiwi video transcript (RTF download). This short video explains the six Creative Commons Licences, by Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand.
You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work — and derivative works based upon it — only if they give credit the way you request.
You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your work — and derivative works based upon it — but for non-commercial purposes only.
You allow others to distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the licence that governs your work.
You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform only verbatim copies of your work, not derivative works based upon it.
In this animated video, Michelle develops a chapter on metabolism for an open textbook. She uses her teaching notes for the text of the chapter and finds openly licensed images and exercises to accompany the text. She also determines which Creative Commons licence to assign to her finished chapter before sharing it.
Watch the video or read the Creating OER and Combining Licenses video transcript (RTF download).
Referencing is important. By citing a work/image/video correctly, you acknowledge and respect the intellectual property rights of the author/creator/researcher. How you attribute authors of the CC works will depend on how the content is used or adapted, including whether you modify the content, create a derivative, and/or use multiple sources.
For more information about Creative Commons, please review these FAQ.
IMPORTANT: Works provided under a CC licence,
This is an ideal attribution because it includes the following:
Use the Creative Commons Chooser (beta) tool to create your attribution. It helps you comply with the attribution requirement of a Creative Commons licence.
© Western Sydney University, unless otherwise attributed.
Library guide created by Western Sydney University Library staff is licenced under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY)